Literature timeline: faking in personnel selection

This is a work in progress, will be finished by the end the September 2020

McCrae and Costa (1983)

  • Social desirability (SD) is better interpreted as substantial traits than as indicators of response bias
  • Using SD to correct for response bias should be questioned

Anderson, Warner, and Spencer (1984)

  • Inflation bias is prevalent and pervasive in employment selection
  • Inflation bias is negatively correlated with an external performance measure

Hough, Eaton, Dunnette, and Kamp (1990)

  • validities were in the .20s (uncorrected for unreliability or restriction in range) against targeted criterion constructs
  • Respondents successfully distorted their self-descriptions when instructed to do so
  • Response validity scales were responsive to different types of distortion
  • applicants’ responses did not reflect evidence of distortion
  • validities remained stable regardless of possible distortion by respondents in either unusually positive or negative directions

Holden and Kroner (1992)

  • Test item response times were statistically adjusted to reflect item latencies in relation both to the person and to the item
  • Discriminant function analysis indicated that such times could significantly differentiate among standard responding, faking good responses, and faking bad responses
  • classification hit rates with differential response latencies compared favorably with those rates found with more traditional response dissimulation scales

(Note: most of the bullet points were excepts from the papers.)


Anderson, C. D., Warner, J. L., & Spencer, C. C. (1984). Inflation bias in self-assessment examinations: Implications for valid employee selection. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(4), 574-580.

Anglim, J., Lievens, F., Everton, L., Grant, S. L., & Marty, A. (2018). HEXACO personality predicts counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior in low-stakes and job applicant contexts. Journal of Research in Personality, 77, 11-20.

Arthur Jr, W., Glaze, R. M., Villado, A. J., & Taylor, J. E. (2010). The magnitude and extent of cheating and response distortion effects on unproctored internet‐based tests of cognitive ability and personality.International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 18(1), 1-16.

Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44(1), 1-26.

Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1996). Effects of impression management and self-deception on the predictive validity of personality constructs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3), 261-272.

Berry, C. M., & Sackett, P. R. (2009). Faking in personnel selection: Tradeoffs in performance versus fairness resulting from two cut‐score strategies. Personnel Psychology, 62(4), 833-863.

Birkeland, S. A., Manson, T. M., Kisamore, J. L., Brannick, M. T., & Smith, M. A. (2006). A meta‐analytic investigation of job applicant faking on personality measures. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14(4), 317-335.

Burns, G. N., & Christiansen, N. D. (2011). Methods of measuring faking behavior. Human Performance, 24(4), 358-372.

Böckenholt, U. (2014). Modeling motivated misreports to sensitive survey questions. Psychometrika, 79(3), 515-537.

Cao, M., & Drasgow, F. (2019). Does forcing reduce faking? A meta-analytic review of forced-choice personality measures in high-stakes situations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104(11), 1347–1368.

Converse, P. D., Peterson, M. H., & Griffith, R. L. (2009). Faking on personality measures: Implications for selection involving multiple predictors. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 17(1), 47-60.

Cucina, J. M., Vasilopoulos, N. L., Su, C., Busciglio, H. H., Cozma, I., DeCostanza, A. H., … & Shaw, M. N. (2019). The effects of empirical keying of personality measures on faking and criterion-related validity. Journal of Business and Psychology, 34(3), 337-356.

Dwight, S. A., & Donovan, J. J. (2003). Do warnings not to fake reduce faking?. Human Performance, 16(1), 1-23.

Donovan, J. J., Dwight, S. A., & Hurtz, G. M. (2003). An assessment of the prevalence, severity, and verifiability of entry-level applicant faking using the randomized response technique. Human Performance, 16(1), 81-106.

Dunlop, P., Mcneill, I., & Jorritsma, K. (2016). Tailoring the Overclaiming Technique to Capture Faking Behaviour in Applied Settings: A Field Study of Firefighter Applicants. International Journal of Psychology, 51, 792-792. [no fulltext]

Feeney, J. R., & Goffin, R. D. (2015). The overclaiming questionnaire: A good way to measure faking?. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 248-252.

Ferrando, P. J., & Chico, E. (2001). Detecting dissimulation in personality test scores: A comparison between person-fit indices and detection scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61(6), 997-1012.

Fine, S., & Pirak, M. (2016). Faking fast and slow: Within-person response time latencies for measuring faking in personnel testing. Journal of Business and Psychology, 31(1), 51-64.

Goffin, R. D., & Boyd, A. C. (2009). Faking and personality assessment in personnel selection: Advancing models of faking. Canadian Psychology, 50(3), 151-160.

Griffith, R. L., Chmielowski, T., & Yoshita, Y. (2007). Do applicants fake? An examination of the frequency of applicant faking behavior. Personnel Review, 36(3), 341-355.

Griffith, R. L., Lee, L. M., Peterson, M. H., & Zickar, M. J. (2011). First dates and little white lies: A trait contract classification theory of applicant faking behavior. Human Performance, 24(4), 338-357.

Griffith, R. L., & Peterson, M. H. (2011). One piece at a time: The puzzle of applicant faking and a call for theory. Human Performance, 24(4), 291-301.

Hogan, J., Barrett, P., & Hogan, R. (2007). Personality measurement, faking, and employment selection. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1270-1285.

Holden, R. R., & Kroner, D. G. (1992). Relative efficacy of differential response latencies for detecting faking on a self-report measure of psychopathology. Psychological Assessment, 4(2), 170–173.

Holden, R. R., Wood, L. L., & Tomashewski, L. (2001). Do response time limitations counteract the effect of faking on personality inventory validity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(1), 160–169.

Hough, L. M. (1998). Effects of intentional distortion in personality measurement and evaluation of suggested palliatives. Human Performance, 11(2-3), 209-244.

Hough, L. M., Eaton, N. K., Dunnette, M. D., Kamp, J. D., & McCloy, R. A. (1990). Criterion-related validities of personality constructs and the effect of response distortion on those validities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(5), 581–595.

Jackson, D. N., Wroblewski, V. R., & Ashton, M. C. (2000). The impact of faking on employment tests: Does forced choice offer a solution?. Human Performance, 13(4), 371-388.

Kluger, A. N., & Colella, A. (1993). Beyond the mean bias: The effect of warning against faking on biodata item variances. Personnel Psychology, 46(4), 763-780.

König, C. J., Merz, A. S., & Trauffer, N. (2012). What is in applicants’ minds when they fill out a personality test? Insights from a qualitative study. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 20(4), 442-452.

Komar, S., Brown, D. J., Komar, J. A., & Robie, C. (2008). Faking and the validity of conscientiousness: A Monte Carlo investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 140-154.

Kuncel, N. R., & Borneman, M. J. (2007). Toward a new method of detecting deliberately faked personality tests: The use of idiosyncratic item responses. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 15(2), 220-231.

Levashina, J., & Campion, M. A. (2007). Measuring faking in the employment interview: development and validation of an interview faking behavior scale. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6), 1638-1656.

Marcus, B. (2009). ‘Faking’From the Applicant’s Perspective: A theory of self‐presentation in personnel selection settings. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 17(4), 417-430.

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1983). Social desirability scales: More substance than style. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(6), 882–888.

McFarland, L. A., & Ryan, A. M. (2006). Toward an integrated model of applicant faking behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(4), 979-1016.

McLarnon, M. J., DeLongchamp, A. C., & Schneider, T. J. (2019). Faking it! Individual differences in types and degrees of faking behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 88-95.

Meade, A. W., Pappalardo, G., Braddy, P. W., & Fleenor, J. W. (2020). Rapid response measurement: Development of a faking-resistant assessment method for personality. Organizational Research Methods, 23(1), 181-207.

Mueller-Hanson, R. A., Heggestad, E. D., & Thornton, G. C. (2006). Individual differences in impression management: An exploration of the psychological processes underlying faking. Psychology Science, 48(3), 288-312.

Ones, D. S., Viswesvaran, C., & Reiss, A. D. (1996). Role of social desirability in personality testing for personnel selection: The red herring. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(6), 660-679.

Paulhus, D. L., Harms, P. D., Bruce, M. N., & Lysy, D. C. (2003). The over-claiming technique: Measuring self-enhancement independent of ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 890–904.

Peterson, M. H., Griffith, R. L., Isaacson, J. A., O’Connell, M. S., & Mangos, P. M. (2011). Applicant faking, social desirability, and the prediction of counterproductive work behaviors. Human Performance, 24(3), 270-290.

Piedmont, R. L., McCrae, R. R., Riemann, R., & Angleitner, A. (2000). On the invalidity of validity scales: Evidence from self-reports and observer ratings in volunteer samples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(3), 582–593.

Pavlov, G., Maydeu-Olivares, A., & Fairchild, A. J. (2019). Effects of applicant faking on forced-choice and Likert scores. Organizational Research Methods, 22(3), 710-739.

Schermer, J. A., Holden, R. R., & Krammer, G. (2019). The general factor of personality is very robust under faking conditions. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 63-68.

Schmit, M. J., & Ryan, A. M. (1993). The Big Five in personnel selection: Factor structure in applicant and nonapplicant populations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(6), 966–974.

Snell, A. F., Sydell, E. J., & Lueke, S. B. (1999). Towards a theory of applicant faking: Integrating studies of deception. Human Resource Management Review, 9(2), 219-242.

Stark, S., Chernyshenko, O. S., Chan, K.-Y., Lee, W. C., & Drasgow, F. (2001). Effects of the testing situation on item responding: Cause for concern. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 943–953.

Suchotzki, K., Verschuere, B., Van Bockstaele, B., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Crombez, G. (2017). Lying takes time: A meta-analysis on reaction time measures of deception. Psychological Bulletin, 143(4), 428–453.

Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (1999). Meta-analyses of fakability estimates: Implications for personality measurement. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59(2), 197-210.

Zickar, M. J., & Drasgow, F. (1996). Detecting faking on a personality instrument using appropriateness measurement. Applied Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 71-87.

Zickar, M. J., Gibby, R. E., & Robie, C. (2004). Uncovering faking samples in applicant, incumbent, and experimental data sets: An application of mixed-model item response theory. Organizational Research Methods, 7(2), 168-190.

Zickar, M. J., & Robie, C. (1999). Modeling faking good on personality items: An item-level analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(4), 551-563.

Chen Tang
Chen Tang
PhD Student @ UIUC
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